Friday, September 21, 2012

Busan museum in Busan Metropolitan City

                  Busan museum  intraduce

Since its opening in 1978, our museum has grown oldwhen compared with other public museums in many places all over the country However, as time went by, the museum became inadequate to be a symbol of Busan which is growing into a global city. It became insufficient to be a pride of it's citizens due to its aged and limited facilities.

For this reason, in 2002, efforts were made to satisfy the citizens' desire for culture through new construction of 2nd exhibition building based on the relics that had been secured by means of excavations, donations and purchases, etc.

The remains collected and exhibited in the museum are important materials that show the character of history and culture of Busan from the prehistoric times to the present age. In addition to this, they are not only the evidences that shows us who we are but also the treasures that create the wisdom, revealing to us the path that we will proceed .

In the future, we will continue to make our museum achieve its function and roles as a comprehensive museum through collections, preservations, studies and exhibitions of traditional cultural materials related to our community. We will also runa program for a variety of educations and cultures that will satisfy the citizens. This way, we will make the museum as an open history and culture space that is favored by all of us.

By revitalizing the exchanges both home and abroad in various ways, we will also work diligentlyso that the museum may be the place matching its status of Busan, the largest port city in Northeast Asia.

    Prehistory Room
Because of its natural and environmental factor surrounded by water on three sides, Busan area began to be inhabited since the Late Paleolithic Period (20,000~15,000 B.C.), and there are many relics and remains related to this. Many kinds of chipped stone implements have been excavated from the Jwa-dong and Jung-dong historic site throughout the entire area of Haeundae, including stone axe, jjikgae, milgae, geulgae, stone blade, etc., which can be assumed to be the ones that existed around 15,000~20,000 years ago, we can see that Busan area began to be inhabited at least since the Late Paleolithic Period.

Around 12,000 years ago, the glacial epoch ended and the Neolithic culture began to develop. From around 7,000 to 8,000 years ago, the Neolithic people began to live in the Busan area, along the coast where abundant marine resources were available. They left behind shell mound, settlement sites and tombs, and various artifacts including comb-patterned pottery, fish spear, fishing hook, stone axe, shellfish bracelet and era ring, stone and bone tools, etc., and the typical remains are the Dongsam-dong Shell Mound and the Beombang relic, etc.

Around 3,000 years ago from now, the new cultural factors focusing on Mumun pottery and bronze ware and rice farming came into the Busan area from the northern area, the rice agriculture was introduced into the region bringing about the Bronze Period. The people of this period, dwelling on river banks and on hilly districts, left behind many relics related to farming, which include the housing sites of Banyeo-dong, Oncheon-dong and Nopo-dong as well as the dolmens of Gamcheon-dong and Gadeok-do and Jo-do shell mound.

Samhan/Three Kingdoms Room
Around the latter half of the Bronze Age, because of the inflow of iron culture from China, the Samhan society(B.C. 2C~A.D. 3C) began to be formed. From this time, Busan area came into a full-scale historical age, and the Dokro kingdom was established, which was one of the Byeonhan 12 kingdoms. As the typical relics of this age, there are Dongrae shell mound and Naeseong relic, and the tomb relics are located in Bokcheon-dong, Guseo-dong and Nopo-dong. As for the cultural phenomena in this age, there appeared new earthenware called wajil earthenware and the deotneol tomb as well as the various instruments and weapons made of iron material.


Facing the turbulent era when the use of ironware was generalized and wars were happening frequently, the small kingdoms of Samhan united allied with other neighboring small kingdoms or unified with them. The Dokro kingdom in Busan allied with Gaya kingdom located in the Gimhae area, becoming part of Geumgwan-Gaya, sharing the culture from 4th century to early 5th century. However, after the 5th century, as the Geumgwan-Gaya declined and Silla advanced here, the Silla culture became established. All the relics of Three Kingdom era known to this date are tombs, including the Ancient Tombs of Bokcheon-dong, Oryundae, Dugu-dong, Imseok-dong, Danggam-dong, Hwamyeong-dong, Deokcheon-dong, Banyeo-dong, Goejeong-dong and the Yeonsan-dong Ancient Tombs.

Unified Silla Room
Silla that had unified the Three Kingdoms began to execute the Ju Gun and Hyeon System by reorganizing the local government system in 685(5th year of King Sinmun) for the purpose of centralized authoritarian ruling. As the local government system has been organized, the social atmosphere got to be different from the time before the unification.

Busan, which was in the outskirts of the unified Silla was incorporated into Dongnae-gun, a part of Yangju, and named Dongnae in 751(16th year of King Gyeongdeok), which is derived from Chinese characters. In connection with Busan, some records and stories came to us, including a record that the Silla kings visited Dongrae hot spring several times and a story that Choe Chi-Won came to Haeundae to rest there, who was frustrated when his suggestion to reform the political system was rejected by Qeen Jinseong. During this time, as Buddhism spread, Beomeosa (temple) was built in Busan, too, where are still the 3 Story Stone Tower and Stone Lamp, etc. Beomeosa, one of the 10 Hwaeom-sect temples, is said to be initially built in mount Geumjeong in 678(18th year of King Munmu) and rebuilt in 830(10th year of King Heungdeok). Around this time, the first roof-tiled building was built, too. The relics of Unified Silla that remain in Busan include many items related to daily life such as earthenware kiln, etc.

Goryeo Room

After the unification of Later Samguk(Three Kingdoms) by Goryeo(918~1392), Busan became a remote place far from the center of politics. As a result, when compared even with the neighboring area like Ulsan, Yangsan, etc., Busan became politically neglected in the early Goryeo era. The Dongrae-gun, which was a Ju Hyeon where was a local officer dispatched from the central government even in the Unified Silla, lost its status early in Goryeo, being incorporated into Ulju(Ulsan) in 1018(9th of King Hyeonjong), and the Gijang and Dongpyeong hyeon that belonged to Dongrae-gun was incorporated into Ulju and Yangju(Yangsan) respectively.

But after the middle years of Goryeo, especially under King Uijong's reign, Busan produced many relatively important persons such as Jeong Seo who composed Jeong Gwajeong-gok, the Song of Jeong Gwajeong', gradually becoming an important area in politics. Also according to its geographical condition, its approximation to coastal areas and a large river, the importance of Busan gradually emerged struggling through the periods of Mongol resistance, Sambyeocho(three units of remnant resistant Korean soldiers) resistance, and the Japanese invaders domination on the southern and western coasts. Thereafter in Joseon Dynasty, it emerged to the front of history as a gate for entering into friendly relations with Japan.

Joseon Room

From the end of the Goryeo period to the early Joseon period, the damage caused by waegu was very extreme. Busan, very close to Daema-do, the stronghold of waegu was located in the most important place, responsible for the defense at the forefront. For this reason, a jin (barracks) and Gyeongsang-jwasuyeong(Naval Headquarters of Gyeongsangdo Province) were established in Busanpo in 1397(6th year of King Taejo), and it emerged as a very important city militarily.

And a waegwan(Japanese trading and living quarter), an equivalent to today's trade mission, was set up in Busanpo as an important gateway to Japan for Korean-Japanese diplomatic relations. The waegwan was also established in Dumupo and Choryang later. And Busan was also the origin of the trip of the tongsinsa (mission) that was regarded as a formal diplomatic mission dispatched to Japan. Therefore Busan in the Joseon period served as one of the most important points for diplomacy and trade

The Dongrae, which was the center of Busan area, had various kinds of government office buildings in Eupseong including hotels, Dongheon, etc. And close to Eupseong, there were many education institutions like Siseoljae, Dongrae Hyanggyo, Anrakseowon, etc., and it had the function as the center of administration and education.

Korea-Japan Relationship Room

As the Japanese pirates, who had been rampant since the end of Goryeo period, continued to pillage the southern provinces, the Joseon government opened three waegwan(Japanese trading and living quarter) in 3 ports (Busan, Jinhae, and Ulsan) so that they could buy the daily necessities without looting any more. In waegwan, a variety of facilities were built including wharf, hotel, warehouse, etc., and the number of Japanese people staying for a long period gradually increased. When the control over waegwan by Joseon was reinforced, the Japanese in waegwan, who were dissatisfied with this, gave rise to the Sampo War in 1510 under the assistance of the chief of Daemado.

Thereafter, small and big battles occurred repeatedly and the tension between the two nations was intensified, and finally the Imjinwaeran(the Imjin War) broke out in 1592, with Japanese troops invading Joseon. Busan suffered a lot of desctructions for a long time as it was the place invaded by Japanese army for the first time, or passage for the diplomats to hold the meetings for peace talks, or the place for the Japanese troops to remain, or the invasion route of Jeongyujaeran, etc. After Imjinwaeran ended, both countries normalized the diplomatic exchanges with each other, and waegwan was provided for the diplomats and merchants of Japan to exchange with Joseon counterparts. Late in Joseon period, waegwan was provided only in Busan. Various kinds of facilities were built in Busan, which were necessary for diplomatic relations and trades with Japan, many Japanese diplomats and merchants visited Busan. When Joseon diplomats went to Japan, they left for Japan from Busan.

The role of the chief of Dongrae, who controlled over Busan, got to be important, and the role of the following officials became greater, including Jwasusa of Jwasuyeong who was responsible to defend the coast in this area and the Cheomsa who ruled over each Jin like Busanjin, Dadaejin, etc.

Living Culture Room

The Dongrae market is a 5 day interval market opening on every 2 and 7, which is in the center of the village, where many kinds of goods produced in neighboring villages for trading in Dongraebu are gathered. The main product of Dongrae was a tobacco pipe. There were many handicraft manufacturing places to make tobacco pipes in Dongrae, and such tobacco pipes from those manufacturing places were distributed all over the country through the market day. The famous goods in such market included seaweed and hair tail of Gijang, wild edible greens of Cheolma, pear and hemp cloth of Gupo, melon of Yeonsan-dong, bamboo goods of Geumsa-dong, anchovy of Haeundae, sweet persimmon of Yangsan, vegetables of Gimhae and dropwort of Eonyang.

The Dongrae merchants who worked based on the Dongrae market place were the most prominent big tradesman throughout the country together with the Gaeseong and Uiju merchants. They had control over the market with large capital and strong system, leading not only the commerce in Joseon but also the trade with Japan. However, they were gradually squeezed out of the market after opening of a port with a central place of Japanese people being created, of which business district being expanded during the Japan’s colonial rule of the Korean Peninsula. Thereafter, the function of Dongrae market gradually decreased as its transportation service was inconvenient when compared with other markets.

Fork Room

The traditional folk culture in the Busan area have been carried on to today’s life of Busan citizens, but many of them have disappeared as the environment changed. Among them, some old artistic talents that are flower of folk ceremonies permeated with philosophy of life designated as intangible cultural properties for preservation and succession.

The songs that were sung in the sea while catching fish became the Jwasuyoung-eobangnori and Dadaepohurisori, and the song enjoyed while arduous farming in cooperation with one another became a folk game called Suyeongcheongnori. And the masque that is only in Busan, which prays for bountiful year and peace, Suyeong-Dongrae Yaryu was played. The Gutgeori rhythm and Deotbaegi dance became the base of folk games. The Gutgeori rhythm is free from short and rapid melody as if it reflects the thick line, the crude but easygoing character of Busan people, and the Deotbaegi dance is freewheeling only with standard big form.

The folklore of Busan has a dance rhythm that we can enjoy according to the beat having ties that can be fastened and loosened, leading the folk game to the peak. The folklore of Busan is the character that does not tolerate the illicit power as shown in the bitter satire of Yangban in the Deulnoreum.

Modern Times Room

Starting from the exclusive settlement developed immediately after the opening of the port in 1876, many facilities were developed to enforce colonial exploitation. Japanese people plundered the land and houses owned by the people of Joseon. The people of Joseon resisted the economical invasion in many ways, including the introduction of new education, revitalization of both modernization and national education, establishment of commercial system and banks, etc. But since the annexation of Joseon by Japan in 1910, the independent modernization by our people failed.

During the colonial ruling by Japan, they were gradually making Busan their colonial city through port reclaiming work, street planning, maintenance of road network and introduction of electric train, etc. In addition to this, they exploited the raw materials and labors by construction of modern industrial facilities. In the mean time, the Joseon people resisted the colonial ruling by Japan in many ways, including shouting for national independence, organizing laborer group for each industry as well as many kinds of social groups. The Imperial Japan violently oppressed the resistance of Busan people and fostered some pro-Japanese group to break up the Joseon people. The colonial education by Imperial Japan provided to achieve this purpose completely obliterated national education of Joseon to provide only their own education to make Joseon people as their own Emperor’s people.

Present-Day Room

The first 8 years from 1945 when Korea became independent from Japan’s colonial ruling to 1953 when the Korea War ended is a short period within the 5,000 years of Korean history, but its historical events imply that Korea was passing through a transition era which would last throughout the century. Before the overflowing excitement of liberation subsided, Koreans had to suffer a disruption by conflicting ideologies, a war, and then the fixation of the division of the land.

The division, unification, ideology and foreign power and others are the terms to which we are still accustomed, and those problems still remain unsolved. In the history of 8 years after liberation, Busan was in the center of changes. Our people felt firsthand the liberation of our own nation through the wave of repatriating people flowing into Busan port. In Korea War, which was the cause for the beginning of a full-scale division period after the chance to establish independent unified country came to an abrupt end, Busan was in the center of history, as the provisional capital and haven for the refugees who had gathered from all over the peninsula.

No comments:

Post a Comment